The history of Blockchain goes back to 2008 when the Bitcoin cryptocurrency came out
In Bitcoin, a blockchain serves this cryptocurrency only with two smart contracts.
All the attempts to formalize the majority of events with smart contracts in a single blockchain platform have not led to success so far
The first generation blockchain consisted of the first currency such as Bitcoin, based on Proof Of Work (PoW), its various clones and forks. This bitcoin initiative is now called blockchain 1;
The second generation of blockchain is more heterogeneous, based on the use of tokens such as Ethereum and solutions of its ecosystem. These two categories are characterized by very low energy efficiency and low transaction rates. we call it blockchain 2 now ;
The third generation of blockchain 3 includes those with which they tried to answer questions regarding transaction speed and the impossibility of scaling using various mechanisms;
Blockchain 4.0 all the best features of 3rd generation blockchain (faster consensus, ultra fast transaction confirmation) are included.
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At the end of the 70s – the beginning of the 80s, new types of networks appeared, as new types of processors appeared, network cards that had to exchange data with each other and a network protocol called x32 appeared. This protocol allowed connecting to computers of various network configurations: star, ring, mixed network communications — i.e., Ethernet.
It is still used in all network connections – inside data centers, WiFi. The protocol works over wired connections, radio channels, satellite channels, Ethernet networks. With the increasing number of computers and the distance between them, the use of Ethernet has become problematic.
Ethernet is a network protocol; it operates under the control of a circuit switching network, i.e., The channels themselves are commuting. The Internet is a packet switching network with four-zone addresses, the so-called IP addresses
Addresses are interconnected at the time for transferring a single packet, and when the packet is transmitted, this connection is broken. Since the Internet does not allow to transmit a message without fail, this is accomplished by using a confirmation for which time must be spent, this protocol works at the upper network layer, including the application layer.